Operating System / what is Operating System in detail.

Operating System

An operating system is a program which operates as an interface between computer hardware and software.

The operating system is a software that controls computer entire operation and manages program processing by allocating storage space in memory and controlling input and output functions.

It is an integrated set of special programs for handling & controls the computer's total resources and operations.

Operating System

It is a software that handles and monitors the execution of all other programs, such as software applications and other system software.

Operating System video

Goles of Operating System

Efficient and reasonable resources sharing between users and programs.

To manage a computer system 's resources

Track uses the resource, give resource requests and arbitrate conflicting requests from various programs and users.

Makes the computer comfortable to use efficiently.

To make the computer system easy to use efficiently.

The computer system is designed to run user programs and facilitate tasks.

Operating System Functions

Processor managment, that is allocation of processor to different works being done by computer system.

Memory management, that is assignment of main memory and other storage areas to the system programs,user programs and data.

Input/Output management, that is proper interaction and allocation of the various input and output devices when different programs are being executed.

File management, that is keeping record of fiels on various storage devices and move all these fiels from ine device to another.

Ggive emphasis on buildind a job priority system. that is it finds out and keeps record of order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system.

Switching from job to job as guided by special control staements automatically.

Understand the meaning of commonds and instruction.

Making interface and allocation of compilers, assemblers,utility programs,etc.

Buliding mechanism of data security and integrity.

Genration of traces,error messages, and other debugging and error detecting facitity.

Windows Operating System

Microsoft began developing operating systems for computers with MSDOS 1.0 in 1981.Windows is a series of Microsoft- developed operating systems.

Each Windows version has a graphical user interface with a desktop that allows users to view windows files and folders.

Windows has been the most commonly used operating system for PCs on personal computers for the last two decades.


Microsoft Windows is programmed for home and professional computing applications.Windows is designed to run on standard x86 hardware, such as processors Intel and AMD.

Windows home editions include Windows 3.0( 1990), Windows 3.1( 1992), Windows 95( 1995), Windows 98( 1998), Windows Me( 2000), Windows XP( 2001) and Windows Vista( 2006).

Operating System

QR Code in detail / What is a QR Code ?

  What is a QR Code

QR code( Quick Response Code) is the trademark of a type of matrix bar code for the automotive industry in Japan first designed in 1994. A barcode is a machine- readable optical label with information on the item it is attached to.

A QR code is a square two- dimensional barcode that stores encoded data.

The QR Code extends the data available on any physical object and creates a digital scope for the marketing. This technology allows and accelerates the use of mobile web services: this is a highly creative digital tool.

QR Code in detail
Different type of QR code


Denso Wave, a Japanese subsidiary of the Toyota Group, created QR codes in 1994.The use of this technology is now free. The QR code may not be the only two- dimensional bar code on the global market, but the data matrix code is also an example.
QR Code is the world's most famous 2D barcode. It has been successful in Japan since the 2000s, where it has now become a standard. In 2011, every Japanese scanned an average of 5 QR codes daily- more than the average number of text messages sent.

A few examples of current QR codes

  • QR business card codes link to the complete summary or website of the individual.
  • A Starbucks  featured a QR code- enabled treasure hunt with hints in stores that were accessed via QR codes.
  • The J.N. in Florida. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge sets QR codes on signs connecting people to wildlife information videos along the paths.
  • Quiring Monuments in Seattle sets QR code on gravestones to connect people to a deceased's online notice or website.

How to scan a QR Code?

As explained below, the QR code is an easy three- step process. You must open your application for reading and point your camera to QR code. It is then recognized by the application performing the accompanying action.
  1. Download the reader.
  2. Scan the code.
  3. Access the contain.
QR Code in detail

Important things about QR code

We can generate powerful generator QR code and in a few seconds you'll be able to download your fully customized QR code. It's fast and easy.

After you have created your QR code, you can download it as an image to use in your documents or graphics. The image formats available vary with respect to the generator you are using.

The size of a QR code is an important issue that should not be overlooked! QR codes must be large enough to be recognized and decoded by the read application of the smartphone.

You are ready to print your QR codes on your years- long documents and posters and you want to know whether they will still work next decade or 10 years.

QR Code in detail

Personality Development : Best unique Tips.

"Personality Development"

Have you ever observed people attracting you all the time? They have that wonderful quality that attracts people to them. So, how can they do this? Well, the answer is simple they have a personified personality. Not only does the aura they have learn that reflects their inner self.

The fact is that everyone can develop such a personality, but you have to learn all the skills you need to excel in this art.

We are now aware that we have influence and control over the characteristics and features we want to develop or refine.

Personality Development

What is Personality?

Personality is the characteristic trend of thinking, feeling and behavior that makes a person unique.

The term 'personality' is a broad term describing a person's physical and mental state.

However in some circumstances, you have to learn how to bring out the most attractive traits so you can put your best foot forward and grow as a person.

There's always room for improvement, no matter how old you are. You can become more attractive in your professional and social life by developing your personality in a positive way.

When we say someone has a "good personality," we mean they are nice, interesting and pleasant.The following are the important personality improvement tips that can help you in developing your personality.

Personality Development

The Personality Development Tips 

  • Have a positive attitude and viewpoint.
Who wants to be a negative person, complain a lot or have nothing good to say? Most of us actually run when we see them coming.Instead, be the kind of upbeat person who illuminates a room with your energy.Seeking the best in people and stuff. Smile warmly, cheer well and animate others with your presence.

  •   Learn Important Social Skills
If you are just outside attractive, it will never be enough to move you forward in your career or to help you in your closest relationships.

It is therefore important to reinforce your social skills. The more successful you are in your social spheres, the greater your self- confidence.

  • Create Your Own Style
You don't want to be someone else's replica,you want to be yourself.

Find and stick with the style that makes you most comfortable.

This is something that you can explore and develop over time, so that you can easily move on to something new if you start getting tired of one thing.

  • Stay clever and cool
Stay clever and cool even if you panic inside in a stressful situation, try to stay cool outside.Remaining calm instead of falling apart or flying off your handle makes you look smarter and more balanced emotionally.

Personality Development

  • Learn social skills: 
Only good looks will never be enough to help you in life or in your relationships with people. Rather, reinforce your social skills. The more successful you have in social life the better you feel about yourself. Try to use positive gestures while you interact with others and also pay attention to your body language. 

  • Know your positives
If each person has his or her limitations, then he or she also has positive results. These are positive things you need to concentrate on. Know your powers. Recognize and work with them. It would definitely help you to overcome your challenges and get you going for a long time. 

  • Do not be afraid of failure 
Don't worry about making mistakes, you're going to make loads on your journey and many of them can hold you back for a while, but once you've made them, you can eliminate these methods and move on. 

Personality Development

  • Don't Be Aggressive.
Although you want to be assertive many times, this doesn't mean you have to be aggressive. To be aggressive is a great turn for people in both a social and a professional situation.

  •  Come Across As A Leader
Become an authority on whatever topic you address, you have the knowledge to pass it on to others and you will attract followers if you pass your message on in the right way. Express yourself and do what you always say.

Personality Development

  • Learn from Mistakes
Learn about your mistakes, forgive yourself and move on. Don't stop until you discover your mistakes. It may take years for you to learn, and it's okay, at least you learn and try your best. You're a thousand times better than people never try to face their introverted personality. 

  • Language of your body
It is universally accepted that 70 percent of your body speaks and people will judge you by your gestures and not by your speech.So when you talk, you need to know what your body is conveying, it sounds too offensive, aggressive or timid.

Personality Development

  • Be supportive of others
Support is probably the best quality you can incorporate into your personality. Just as you welcome it, help others when they need it.

Personality Development

Memory hierarchy in detail / explanation of Memory hierarchy and it's work in detail.

Memory Hierarchy

Memory hierarchy is a pyramid structure that is commly used to illustrate the significant difference among memory type.

The memory unit is an essential component for the storage of program and data on any digital computer. A computer's total memory capacity can be viewed as a "component hierarchy."

Memory hierarchy usually consists of a triangle with hard drives (physical long-term storage disks) at the bottom and quicker, smaller data storage methods near the top (Cache, RAM). Memory storage methods close to the top of the triangle are faster, but have less capacity, while methods close to the bottom are slower, but have much more capacity. In programming, the computer programmer wants to optimize its code so that the higher memory storage methods handle fast and fast processes, and the less needed information is stored lower on the triangle. 

Memory hierarchy

Component of Memory hierarchy

Auxiliary Memory:

It is used for backup storage and  store large amount of data.It is not directly connected with c.p.u.

Main memory:

It is a area in a computer in which data is store for quick access by computer processor.

Cache Memory:

It is used by central process unit (c.p.u) to reduce the average time or energy to access data from memory. 


It is internal processor memory.It access the data for less then >l ns.

Memory hierarchy
Memory hierarchy

Work of Memory hierarchy

  • Decreasing cost per bit.
  • Increasing capacity.
  • Increasing access time.
  • Decreasing frequency of access.    .
Memory hierarchy

What is Artificial Intelligence in detail.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence(AI) is the intelligence of a machine that can perform any intellectual and moral task a person can perform skillfully.

According to Artificial Intelligence father John McCarthy, it is "the science and engineering of smart machines, especially smart computer programs."

Artificial intelligence is a way of intelligently thinking a computer, a computer- governed robot or a software in the same way intelligent people think.

Artificial Intelligence( AI) is an area of informatics that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that function and react like people. Some of the artificial intelligence computer activities are voice recognition, learning, planning, troubleshoot.

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence

Goals of Artificial Intelligence

Initial attempts were made to follow the logic of the computer, check proof, play chess and tic-tac-toe, things like this. It turns out that playing games and following logic, which is a bit difficult for us humans, is very easy for a computer to do. It is almost trivial, for example, to code a sudoku solver that runs in a few seconds,To quote Minsky (one of the early grands on the field) back in 1889 :

" Our first attempt at artificial intelligence was a program that has done a credible job in solving college calculus problems. We tackled high school algebra with this success; we found it much harder, to our surprise. Grade school arithmetic attempts present problems of current research interest. Except under t, an exploration of the child's world of blocks proved insurmountable. 

Therefore, the biggest problems in the field are those that "three years old can do ": things like walking, feeling, seeing, picking up language and grammar, understanding and manipulating unseen objects, recognizing what they see and so on. This was a big departure from the early days, now called "classical AI. " That's not to say that classic AI is gone; it's not the only thing now. 

The arrival of statistics and machine learning was a second major breakthrough. You can not overestimate the impact of statistics. Statistics and probability allowed us to deal with uncertainty, and many, if not all, areas of AI were revolutionized (I think I can say for sure) by their impact. 

Applications of Artificial Intelligence 

  • Cars self- driving.
  • The Fortuneteller.
  • The cleverest investor.
  • A World Better.
  • A superhuman physician.
  • Expert Systems.
  • Gaming.
  • Recognition of spoken word.
  • Intelligent Robots.
  • Handwriting Recognition.

Microprocessor in detail I What is microprocessor.


A microprocessor is a element that performs the instructions and tasks involved in computer processing. The microprocessor in a computer system is the fundamental unit that performs and manages the logical instructions.

A Microprocessor is an important part of a computer architecture without which we can't able to perform any thing on our system. 

It of an ALU, register, and a control unit. ALU performs arithmetical and logical operations. Register consists of  special registers identified like accumulator. The control unit controls the flow of data and instructions in the computer system.


Work of microprocessor

In starting, the instructions are in the memory. The microprocessor fetches those instructions from the memory, then decodes it and executes those instructions.After than, it sends the result in binary form to the output port. 
So that the main function of microprocessor is fetch,decode,and execute.

Basics of Microprocessor

A microprocessor takes and executes a bunch of instructions in the machine language to tell the processor what to do. When performing the instruction.

Microprocessor data can be moved from one place to the next.

It has a program counter( PC) register that stores the next instruction address based on the value of the PC, the microprocessor jumps from one location to another and decides.

Clock Speed of Microprocessor

64-bit Microprocessor
  • INTEL CORE-2: 1.2GHz to 3GHz
  • INTEL i7: 66GHz to 3.33GHz
  • INTEL i5: 2.4GHz to 3.6GHz
  • INTEL i3: 2.93GHz to 3.33GHz 
  • 16-bit Microprocessor
32-bit Microprocessor

  • INTEL 80386: 16MHz to 33MHz
  • INTEL 80486: 16MHz to 100MHz
  • PENTIUM: 66MHz 
16-bit Microprocessor
  • 8086: 4.7MHz, 8MHz, 10MHz
  • 8088: more than 5MHz
  • 80186/80188: 6MHz
  • 80286: 8MHz 

Features of a Microprocessor

Efficiency :In microprocessors, the failure rate of an IC is very low and therefore efficient.

Size: The microprocessor has a small chip and is therefore portable.

Versatility:  It is are flexible because we can configure the software program to use the same chip in a number of jobs.

Power Consumption: Microprocessors are manufactured using a low power consuming metaloxide semiconductor technology.

Efficient: The microprocessor chips are available at low prices and have a low cost.


Types of Network(lan,wan,man).

Types of Network(lan,wan,man)

What is Network

}  A collection of computing devices that are connected in various ways i.e(topologys) in order communicate and share resources.
}  The generic term node and host refers to any device on a network.

Type of network

}  LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK).           


A personal area network (PAN)is smallest network which is vary personal to user.
This may include bluetooth enabled device or infra-red enbled devices.
PAN has connectivity range up to 10 metrs.
PAN may include wireless computer keyboard and mouse ,bluetooth enabled head phones ,wireless printer and tv remote.


Example of local area network is office, building, school, network etc.
Range like small distance like one room.
In one LAN network we add maximum 1000 pc’s.
Use wired connection mostly & Eathernet cable is used for connectivity .
Ownership is private.
Data transmission speed is high.
Central server for data transmission.

MAN(metropolition area network)

Range is between 75 to 80 km.

Use two & more Local Area Network connection for create a network.
Ownership is both public and private.
Data transmission speed is moderate.
It is use for city to city data connectivity.
It has more to installation .for example TV cable and ATM.

WAN(wide area network)

User for globle connetivity.
Ownership is PUBLIC & PRIVATE both.
Installation & maintenance is more difficult .
Data transmission speed is SLOW.
It is wired and wireless both.
It is also called Core internet.
Used Telephone line leased line is satellites for data sharing.

What is Topology | best of Topology .

What is Topology.

Topology :

A  topology is the plan of a network, including its hubs and interfacing lines. There are two different ways of characterizing system geometry: the physical topology and the logical  (or flag) topology. 

The physical topology of a system is the genuine geometric format of workstations. There are a few regular physical topologies, as depicted beneath and as appeared in the delineation.

Types of Network Topology :

Network Topology is the  network arrangement, connecting various nodes through a line of connection.

BUS Topology :

In bus topolgy all the nodes are connected through the single cable.


Highlights of Bus Topology :

  • It transmits information just one way. 
  • Each gadget is associated with a solitary link.

Favorable circumstances of Bus Topology :

  • It is less in cost. 
  • Link required is least contrasted with other system topology. 
  • Utilized in little systems or network.
  • It is easy to configure.
  • Simple to increases combining two links. 

Drawbacks of Bus Topology :

  • Links fail then entire system comes up short or fail. 
  • In the event that arrange traffic is increases or pc's are more the execution of the system speeds slows. 
  • cable  has a fix length. 
  • It is slower than the ring topology.  
RING Topology :

It is called ring topology since it shapes a ring as every PC is associated with another PC, with the last one associated with the first. Precisely two neighbors for every gadget.


Favorable circumstances of Ring Topology :

  • Transmitting system isn't influenced by high traffic or by including more hubs or node, as just the node having tokens can transmit information. 
  • Less in cost to introduce and grow .

Drawbacks of Ring Topology :

  • Finding troublesome in ring topology is dificult.
  • Including or erasing the PCs disturb the system network. 
  • crash  of one PC disturb the entire system network. 

STAR Topology :


In this kind of topology every one of the PCs are associated with a center node or hub point through a link. This center point is the focal hub and all others node are associated with the focal hub. 

Favorable circumstances of Star Topology :

  • Each hub has its very own devoted connection with the center point or focal hub.
  • Center hub acts as a repeater for information stream. 
  • Can be utilized with twister cable, Optical Fiber or coaxial cable. 
  • fast speed with couple of pc's and low traffic. 
  • Center point can be updated easily. 
  • Simple to find error. 
  • Simple to setup and change. 
  • Just that pc's is influenced which has fail, rest of the other pc's can work easily

Drawbacks of Star topology :

  • Cost of establishment or installation is high. 
  • Costly to use. 
  • If the hub is fail then the total  network is disturbed.

Mesh Topology :

It is a point-to-point association toward different pc's or node. All the system pc's are associated with one another. 


Favorable circumstances of Mesh Topology :

  • Completely associated. 
  • Every association can convey its own responsiblity and capability. 
  • It is powerful. 
  • Gives security and privacy. 

Drawbacks of Mesh Topology :

  • Establishment and setup is troublesome. 
  • Cabling cost is more. 
  • Mass wiring is required. 

Tree Topology :

It has a root hub and every single other pc's are associated with it shaping a tree system. It is likewise called various leveled topology. It ought to in any event have three dimensions to the pecking order. 


Favorable circumstances of Tree Topology :

  • Extension of bus and star topologies. 
  • Expansion of pc's is easy and simple. 
  • Easy to manage and maintain as comape other. 
  • Mistake identification is effectively done. 
Drawbacks of Tree Topology 

  • Too much cabled. 
  • High in cost. 
  • On the off chance that more pc's are included upkeep is difficult.
  • Focal hub point falls fail, .whole network is sttoped. 
Hybrid Topology :

It is two unique sorts of topologies which is a blend of at least two topologies. For example if in an office in one office ring topology is utilized and in another star topology is utilized, interfacing these topologies will result in Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology). 


Favorable circumstances of Hybrid Topology :
  • It is a blend of two or more topologies . 
  • Dependable as Error identifying and investigating is simple. 
  • Powerful. 
  • Versatile as size can be expanded effectively.
Drawbacks of Hybrid Topology :
  • Complex in structure. 
  • high in cost.